Wednesday, November 12, 2008

TAPIR DE ALTURA


Clasificación científica
Curioso tapirLos tapires pertenecen a la familia de los Tapíridos, incluida en el orden de los Perisodáctilos. Constituyen el género Tapirus. El tapir malayo recibe el nombre científico de Tapirus indicus, el tapir norteño se clasifica como Tapirus bairdii, el tapir amazónico como Tapirus terrestris y el tapir de montaña como Tapirus pinchaque.

El Tapir de altura o tapir pinchaque (Tapirus pinchaque) es la especie menos conocida y la más pequeña dentro de las especies de tapires. Los ancestros del tapir de altura datan de más de 55 millones de años en Norte América, Europa y Asia.

Esta especie está distribuida actualmente desde los Andes del Norte del Perú, pasando por la cordillera Este de Ecuador y finalmente hasta los Andes Colombianos. En el Perú, se ha reportado la existencia del tapir de altura en las provincias de Piura y Cajamarca. El Santuario Nacional Tabaconas Namballe es la única área natural protegida que protege poblaciones de esta especie en el Perú.

Los tapires son los perisodáctilos más antiguos y están emparentados con los caballos y los rinocerontes. La familia de los tapires está representada por cuatro especies y todas pertenecen al mismo género. El tapir norteño o de Baird, el tapir amazónico y el tapir de montaña o andino habitan en Sudamérica y América Central en donde también se llama anta, mientras que la cuarta especie, el tapir malayo, está restringida a las selvas de Indochina y la isla de Sumatra. La pérdida de hábitat y la caza han llevado al tapir norteño y al andino al borde de la extinción.

DescripciónMide de 1,7 a 2 metros de largo y puede pesar de 227 a 250 kgs. Cuerpo de color gris, orejas marrones con las puntas blancas. Presenta una trompa en el labio superior.

Costumbres
Generalmente nocturno, parcialmente diurno; terrestre; solitario o en pares; a veces usan la misma área. Se alimentan de frutos y hierbasde ambientes secos y pantanosos. Se desplazan ampliamente dentro del bosque, incluyendo tierra firme, lejos del agua. Por el día descansan entre la densa vegetación, especialmente entre los pantanos. Sus huellas son frecuentes en el bosque, son tímidos, silenciosos y raramente se les observa.

El excremento es un gran montón de fibras, semillas y fragmentos de hojas, a menudo depositados en el agua. Cuando están en peligro corren al agua, sumergiéndose y nadando debajo la superficie. Estos animales gustan de lamer la sal de las colpas, frecuentemente en los mismos lugares dondes están los pecaries. La hembra tiene una camada al año, con una cría por camada.

HábitatVive en los bosques densos y en las zonas de pastos de América Central, América del Sur y Asia. Los tapires tienen el cuerpo robusto, patas y cola cortas; los ojos son pequeños, las orejas redondeadas y erguidas, y el labio superior se prolonga en una trompa o probóscide muy flexible. Los sentidos del olfato y el oído están muy bien desarrollados y, al parecer, emiten sonidos de baja intensidad para comunicarse con otros miembros del grupo familiar, pues en la espesura de la vegetación la vista no resulta de gran ayuda.

Los tapires prefieren hábitats de orilla ribereñas con alguna vegetación herbácea, tales como orillas de los ríos, pantanos, pero también usan cualquier ambiente. Habitan en los bosques primarios, secundarios, bosques de galería y en hábitats abiertos con abundante vegetación.

Alimentación, enemigos y reproducción
Su dieta consiste en hojas, frutas y todo tipo de materia vegetal. Los tapires han sufrido pocos cambios respecto a las formas ancestrales del plioceno, y de hecho siguen perteneciendo al mismo género.
Sus enemigos naturales pertenecen, a excepción del ser humano, a la familia de los Félidos, por ejemplo el jaguar. La reproducción puede ocurrir en cualquier época del año y, tras un periodo de gestación de unos trece meses, la hembra pare un sola cría; ésta se caracteriza por nacer con un pelaje muy diferente al de los adultos, rayado y manchado, un camuflaje perfecto para pasar inadvertido ante sus enemigos.
Importancia biológica
Esta especie es un importante dispersador de semillas y polen. Esto asegura la supervivencia de casi el 33% del total de variedades de plantas. Esta especie no ha cambiado significativamente en los últimos 20 millones de años. Por esta razón, se le considera un “fósil viviente”, único genéticamente e irremplazable.

Amenazas
Pérdida de hábitats

Esta especie está amenazada por la destrucción de sus hábitats, la sobrecaza y la tala de las palmeras de aguaje. A lo largo de los Andes, los hábitats naturales están siendo destruidos sistemáticamente por carreteras, deforestación, agricultura, ganado y poblados causando la pérdida de los bosques húmedos y los páramos.

Caza
Hoy, los pobladores cazan al tapir de altura para alimentarse y para el uso medicinal. Hay creencias tradicionales de que sirven para curar la epilepsia y afecciones cardíacas. Sachavacayoc es una palabra quechua que se refiere al lugar donde se encuentra la vaca de monte, como deben haberla bautizado al tapir (Tapirus terrestris) los primeros migrantes de los andes que se encontraron con una. La sachavaca es uno de los animales más grandes de la amazonía. Veamos lo que dice Víctor Velásquez Zea sobre ella en su libro "La Fauna Silvestre de Madre de Dios" :

Amenazas de la Minería
Masivos proyectos de minería están planificados en alrededor del área montañosa conocida como Cerro Negro. Aquí quedan docenas de miles de hectáreas de bosque nublado virgen o casi virgen y cumbres esponjosas sin árboles, conocidas como páramos que proveen un último refugio para este tapir lanudo y ligero; al igual que para otras especies de plantas y animales raras, endémicas, y en peligro de extinción.

La población restante de tapires de montaña en Perú es de entre 200 y 300 individuos. Las investigaciones acerca de los impactos negativos de la minería en estas cumbres y vertientes de montaña son alarmantes, de acuerdo se afectarán y se están afectando buena parte de las tierras agrícolas más ricas del Perú, donde mangos, zapotes, limones, azúcar, banana, café, arroz, kapok, algarrobo y muchas otras cosechas de calidad son producidas. De manera general, el nor-occidente peruano es muy seco, con extensos desiertos, pero este lugar fue bendecido con más agua que la mayoría del Perú occidental, que cuenta entre los desiertos más secos del mundo.

Hasta el 2003, habían 206.000 hectáreas de bosque y páramo como hábitat apropiado para el tapir andino en los andes norteños del Perú, por arriba del declive de Huancabamba, que es el limite sureño del tapir andino, según estudios de los biólogos Diego Lizcano y Aivi Sissa, en su artículo del 2003: Notes on the Distribution and Conservation Status of Mountain Tapir en el Journal Tapir Conservation publicado por el Grupo de Especialistas del Tapir del UICN. Tal área podría sostener entre 350 y 375 tapires andinos en teoría, pero debido a una fuerte cacería o por el consumo local o por la venta de sus partes como medicina folklórica, transmisión de enfermedades y/o el estrés causado por disturbios a su hábitat por los humanos y el ganado que ellos mantienen, estimaría que solo poco más de la mitad de este numero persiste.

Si se deja que los proyectos mineros de Monterrico y de otros similares continúen, un golpe fatal y final sería infligido a este dispersador de semillas ¡muy importante para la ecología y antiguos fósiles vivientes del Perú.

Tal vez un 90% de la población de tapirus pinchaque de Perú, supervive actualmente en los páramos y bosques de neblina del noroeste de Perú, su especial hábitat será arrasado para dar paso a explotación minera a cielo abierto, eliminando, de esta forma, a un ecosistema vital que alberga además a otras especies registradas también como en vías de extinción por la Unión Mundial para la Naturaleza y por el Decreto Supremo peruano 013-99-ag.

Nuestros tapires de altura viven en una armoniosa co-evolución con los felinos más raros del mundo, el muy pocas veces avistado gato andino (oreailurus jacobita), osos de anteojos (tremartos ornatus), venados enanos (pudu mephistopeles), majaz (agouti taczanowsky y dinomiz braniickii), pava aliblanca (penélope albipennis), pava barbada (penélope barbata), cóndor andino (vultur griphus), jaguares (pantera onca), gato montés (felis colocolo), tigrillo (felis pardalis), etc. Existen, además, muchas otras especies en vulnerabilidad, raras, sin estudio y aún no descubiertas por la ciencia mundial.

Sin lugar a dudas que la explotación minera a cielo abierto en una región tan frágil como nuestros Andes septentrionales no sólo extinguirá a especies únicas en Perú como el tapir de altura, sino también agotará y contaminará irreversiblemente nuestras reservas acuíferas.





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